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Strategic Thinking about the "Going Global" Agriculture in China

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In 1995, China had a reference to agricultural "going global". In 2007, Central Government Document No.1 formally put agriculture "going global" as its national strategy. In the past 20 years, China's agriculture "going global" has undergone a history of folk initiation and the implementation of the national strategy. Over the past 20 years, China's agriculture has achieved impressive results in going global and has encountered some problems. In summary, the main achievements are as follows: Accelerated growth of foreign direct investment; increasingly widespread and diversified investment areas, modes and industries; rapid growth of investment returns and experiences; the main problems are manifested in three dimensions: first, there is a shortage of funds at the enterprise level; Lack of talents, lack of overseas operation and management experience, lack of coordination among enterprises, and other problems of their own abilities. Second, there is a lack of matching domestic financing policies, supporting policies and inadequate trade facilitation measures at the institutional and policy levels. Some investment agreements between countries are not yet completed. The implementation of the national target assessment and business investment cycle is not coordinated and other national public services lack of hurdles; Third, there is the introduction of discrimination at the host level Chinese enterprises policy, infrastructure supply is not in place, the social environment is not stable, labor policy is not convenient, border Policy is not loose and other environmental risk challenges. Deepening the achievements and experiences gained by China's "going global" agriculture and facing up to and resolving various problems it faces is the basis for promoting the development of China's agriculture in the new era to the world. Since the financial crisis, the world economy has moved forward in turmoil. The international situation has been profoundly adjusted. China's economic development has entered a new normal. China's new generation of leaders has a far-sighted vision to systematically plan for China's global development strategy and timely launch policies that will affect the future world development and China's development prospects The "Belt and Road" strategy has provided a new strategic backdrop for China's agricultural development to go global. The future of China's agricultural development to the world, we must do to assess the situation, to strategize, so that positioning accuracy, we must be assured the overall situation, so that systematic planning.

    
Profoundly Analyze the Strategic Trend of Global Agricultural Development in China

    
China's agricultural development to a global analysis of the strategic development of the situation should be profound, so that phase moves, taking advantage of the situation, the momentum.

    
(A) At this stage is a major strategic opportunity for China's agricultural development to go global

    
Judging that the present stage is a major strategic opportunity for China's agricultural development to go global, it is based on the following three major facts:

    
First, China's national strength has rapidly risen and it already has the national strength to plan agricultural development on a global scale. In the 30 years since the reform and opening up, the rapid expansion of China's overall strength has been 30 years. China has surpassed many developed countries such as Japan and Germany to become the second largest economy in the world. Its economic growth is at the forefront of the world with a foreign exchange reserve of about 4 trillion yuan in the world First of all, China is the locomotive of world economic development and an important stabilizing apparatus for smoothing the global economic fluctuations. At present, taking advantage of the strength of our country's strength, the development of agriculture in our country will go global at a proper time.

    
Second, although ABCD's top four international grain merchants play an important role in the global agricultural market and temporarily control the pricing power of the world's major agricultural products, the global untapped agricultural resources are still abundant. At present, China's agricultural development still has tremendous room for development in the world. In Africa, Southeast Asia, Latin America and Russia, Russia still has a large amount of cultivated land to be developed. The agricultural technology in many developing countries needs to be improved. There are still many regional gaps and gaps in the world agricultural industrial chain. At present, taking advantage of the potential space for world agricultural development to fill the gap in the region and bridging the gap in the industrial chain, the agricultural development in our country is going global at a proper time.

    
Thirdly, the rapid growth of China's agricultural enterprises and the mature development of agricultural technology have created profound internal power for our country's agriculture to go global. Multinational corporations are the mainstay of agriculture in the world, and advanced agricultural technology is the key to the global agriculture. In recent years, the rapid development of China's agricultural industrialization has led to the emergence of a group of leading export-oriented industrialized enterprises with strong competitiveness and strong market development capability both at home and abroad. The achievements have been encouraging in fields such as overseas agricultural investment and multinational agricultural operation. In agricultural technology, China has many technological advantages such as hybrid rice, prevention and control of pests and diseases, livestock and poultry raising, water-saving irrigation and biogas construction, which have not only provided technical impetus for China's agricultural development since the reform and opening up, but also passed The Technology Demonstration Center provides agricultural technical assistance to many Asian, African and Latin American countries. At present, taking the leading export-oriented agricultural industrialization enterprises as the brightest and using advanced and applicable agricultural technologies as a weapon, the agricultural development in our country is going global at a proper time.

    
(II) The current development of the world is favorable to the overall global development of agriculture in China

    
Judging the development trend of the world as a whole will benefit China's agricultural development globally, based on the following challenges and opportunities:

    
First, although there is still a downside risk to world development and the prices of bulk agricultural products are in the depression, the trend of economic rally recovery can be expected and the prospects of agricultural development are promising. Since the financial crisis, the economic development in the developed countries has slowed down. The crisis in some countries has continued. The euro zone has been approaching deflation. The European sovereign debt crisis has risen. The political instability in West Asia and North Africa countries has not slowed the geopolitical risks and the economic development in emerging countries, especially in the BRICS Differentiation, China's economic development has entered a period of high and medium speed, with the demand weakened and the global economic growth rate declining. Affected by the slowing down of the world economy, the demand for commodities in the world was sluggish. Prices dropped for three consecutive years. Grain, energy and other commodities were in price depressions. However, the global economy is in a period of recovery after the crisis. The overall easing of global monetary policies, the de-leveraging efforts of all countries, the introduction of a package of economic stimulus measures by some countries, the intensification of economic reforms in developing countries like China and India, the active response of Asia- All the way "strategy, the world economy can be restored. With the further rise in incomes of residents in developing countries and the acceleration of urbanization, the demand for agricultural products will further expand and the prospects for global agricultural development will be promising in the future. The overall study shows that in the future, the world economy and the development of agricultural economy will be better. The economic environment and the agricultural development environment where our country's agricultural development has gone global are in fact very favorable.

    
Second, although some ulterior motives of international public opinion have worsened the image of China's "going global" agriculture, the number of allies supporting China's global agricultural development has been increasing and its relations are getting closer. At present, the media in some countries in the world judge the evil words of "going out" of China's agriculture and attach the labels of "neo-colonialism," "neo-imperialism," "resource plunder." This has led some countries to implement Chinese enterprises in terms of land purchase and leasing However, our country has taken practical actions to gradually resolve the adverse effects of these negative public opinions. Real and responsible investment in agriculture in accordance with international rules has helped to boost the agricultural development in host countries. The fruits of development have benefited local residents and won People, and win the friendship. Under the guidance of the further strategy of the country's top leaders, the concept of "pro-kin, huai, tolerance" and "harmony" has been increasingly highlighted in our country's agriculture "going global." Zero-sum game is not pursued, Development, mutual benefit and reciprocity, consolidate and develop cooperation, and expand alliances. At present, our allies in Asia, Africa and Latin America are increasingly increasing. Some countries regard China as an all-weather friend and many countries have formed strategic cooperative relations with our country. On this profound adjustment of the international situation, new emerging powers such as China have risen, veteran capitalist countries have been declining, their interests in the state relations have been facing a reshuffle, and the new security concept centered on equality, mutual benefit, cooperation and win-win progress will replace the world Power politics in the pattern of interest. Overall judgments, noise is non-mainstream, "harmony" development philosophy is the right way, our country's agricultural development to the global international environment is generally favorable.

    
Third, although the risks of overseas agricultural operations are prominent, the ability of China's agriculture to navigate risks globally has steadily risen. Overseas agricultural projects not only have the general characteristics of long construction and production cycle, adaptability to natural conditions, fluctuations in agricultural product prices and other factors, weak ability of self-development, and relatively high risk of project implementation, but also are subject to changes in the political situation in investment countries and economies Policy changes, exchange rate fluctuations and other special risks, overseas operating performance is very vulnerable to these risks. In spite of this, the pace of China's agricultural enterprises going global has not stopped. The investment in agriculture has risen steadily with an average annual growth rate of over 20%. The strategic tools for overseas investment enterprises to gradually respond to various risks are gradually enriched and their risk control ability is obviously enhanced . In addition, relevant domestic enterprises and ministries also provided risk analysis information for the "going global" of Chinese agriculture. China Export & Credit Insurance Corporation has released the "Country Risk Analysis Report" since 2005 to assess and identify the risk status of over 190 sovereign countries around the world. The Ministry of Commerce and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs jointly issued the "Overseas Investment State-owned Industry Guidance Catalog "; Since 2011, the Ministry of Commerce, the National Development and Reform Commission, and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs have also jointly issued the Guidelines on Foreign Investment in National Industries (2011); all these have clearly identified the risk factors for China's agricultural development and set the direction of encouragement and Focus. Taken together, there are many risk factors facing China's agricultural development towards the world, but its ability to identify, handle and manage risks has also been significantly enhanced.

    
Re-orient China's agricultural development toward the global strategic goal

    
In the current global economic development, the long-term trend is getting better, the international pattern is profoundly adjusted, risks are identified, evasable, preventable, controllable and the international environment is generally favorable to major strategic opportunities. Going global is a major choice for China's agricultural development in the new era. Strategizing, precise positioning, a clear goal, homeopathy.

    
(A) establish the concept

    
China's agricultural development to the world to establish the concept of "harmony" development, adhere to pro, honesty, benefit, content four motto, to achieve China's agriculture and host country agriculture development win-win cooperation.

    
(B) a clear goal

    
China's agricultural development to the world to establish the following goals: to expand China's agricultural development space, enhance China's agricultural global competitiveness, resource allocation, market control and international influence.

    
(C) to implement ideas

    
We will comprehensively consider and comprehensively use the international and domestic markets, two resources and two types of rules, actively implement the strategic plan of "Belt and Road", speed up the implementation of the "Going Global" strategy for agriculture, lay out the global agricultural industrial chain and build a number of key multinational agricultural enterprises Depth integration and control of the key links and major value-added nodes of the global agricultural industry chain, adhere to the development concept of "peace and harmony", promote the win-win cooperation of agriculture between China and host countries, and ensure the sustained, stable, safe and effective supply of national food security and agricultural products and the construction of efficient , A continuing global network of agricultural supply and demand co-ordination and a global network of agricultural science and technology and resources.

    
(D) clear the main body

    
China's agricultural development to the world, China's capital is dominated by large multinational agribusiness is the core of the main active participation in the global agricultural market, small and medium-sized overseas investment in agricultural enterprises is the main participant, the financial institutions, intermediaries, think tanks department is the core service provider , Government departments are the main providers of the formulation and implementation of key policies and public services.

    
System Planning China's Agricultural Development to Global Strategy

    
China's agricultural development should have a systematic plan to go global, so it should have a long-term perspective and work step by step in an effort to gradually expand its capabilities.

    
(I) Strengthen strategic planning and support at the national level

    
With the global development of agriculture, it is a strategic choice at the national level. With the successful implementation of this strategy, China will reap the vast industrial space for national agricultural development, its national influence, its strategic space for peaceful rise, and its future global voice. Therefore, we must step up strategic planning and support at the national level and start long-term strategic planning and implementation. Obviously, the strategic deployment of China's agricultural development towards the world must obey and serve the overall national development and coordinate and promote each other with the country's diplomatic strategy, foreign investment strategy and foreign aid strategy so as to maximize the realization of national interests. Strategic planning should focus on gradual and orderly division of strategic development stage. At this stage, we should focus on the development of stable agricultural trade, the implementation of agricultural assistance to developing countries, and the overseas investment in agriculture and international agricultural cooperation in the medium term. In the long term, we will build a large-scale multinational agricultural enterprise and build a global agricultural supply and demand adjustment network and agricultural science and technology With the resource allocation network as the goal. Strengthen the country's macro guidance and service capabilities for agriculture toward the world.

    
(B) to strengthen the cultivation of large-scale multinational agricultural enterprises

    
Transnational agribusiness is the key body to enhance China's agricultural global competitiveness, resource allocation, market control and international influence. According to the development of China's leading enterprises, a group of transnational agribusiness enterprises that have "a certain scale and good development foundation and have experience and basis in foreign agricultural investment and development, strong economic power and adequate personnel reserves especially for international business personnel" should be selected as soon as possible Key support. Encourage all kinds of enterprises to increase investment in overseas agriculture, participate in international agricultural trade and cooperation, and build a group of transnational agricultural enterprises capable of operating flexibly and long-term in the international agricultural industrial chain and international agricultural markets to form a large-scale agricultural enterprise capable of cooperating with ABCD, Multinational agribusinesses competing on the same stage, with China's status as a powerful international agribusiness.

    
(III) Deepening and expanding agricultural international cooperation

    
Implement the concept of "peace and harmony", focus on strengthening cooperation and development in agricultural assistance and agricultural resources for developing countries and regions, focus on improving self-sufficiency of agricultural products and export supply capacity in developing countries, and strengthen trade and investment cooperation with developed countries with rich agricultural resources Actively participate in the comprehensive agricultural development and global supply chain construction, increase the effective supply of global agricultural products through multiple channels, actively implement the "One Belt and One Road" strategy and step up China's agricultural trade and agricultural economic and trade cooperation with other countries along the "Belt and Road".

    
(D layout of the global agricultural industry chain

    
China's agricultural development to the world should proceed from the perspective of the whole industrial chain layout, and rationally deploy and plan in the agricultural scientific research, agricultural research and development, production, processing, logistics, storage and sales sectors and form the control of the entire industrial chain. It can be deployed to related fields of agricultural production, providing technical training and services to local producers, changing products and markets with technologies and services, extending to the field of processing of agricultural products and realizing the value appreciation of agricultural products, and the logistics system extending to infrastructure construction and distribution of agricultural products . The government should actively support China's agricultural enterprises in laying the key nodes of the global agricultural industrial chain and form a diversified win-win situation with the core of resource development and agriculture-industry cooperation. We will guide and support agricultural enterprises in favor of capital and technology-intensive industries such as processing, logistics, warehousing and terminals, as well as key scientific and technological areas such as research and development. They will also step up their overseas investment and optimize the structure of their investment in agriculture abroad.

    
(This article is the stage result of the project of "National Foreign Agricultural Economics and Policy Research" issued by National Soft Science Program, Project Grant No. 2010GXS1B006, and Technical Innovation Project of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, project approval number ASTIP-IAED-2015-06)

    
Author: Institute of Agricultural Economics and Development, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences